The needley things that the warp threads through are called sheds?
Different patterns are made by the order and combinations of warps that are lifted/lowered on each row.
Don’t pull the weft tight, straighten the row by tapping it with the (?) piece that goes across that’s part of the loom.
Wind on the piece by loosening the scroll parts at the beginning and end and winding them on, then retighten the front one, then wind the rear one backwards and retighten it (to tighten the warp).
Better to weave a lot of pieces on the loom until you get to the end of the warp, rather than cut each one off when you’ve made it cos then you’ve gotta rewarp the loom.